Adverse health effects that may be caused by mould (or fungi) can be categorized in three general groups:

•  Infections - physical invasion of a human body by the
   pathogenic mould species. These include infections of
   a variety of internal organs as well as the common skin
   infections (mycoses). The common infectious fungi being:
   Aspergillus, Fussarium and yeasts.

•  Allergic reactions (allergies) - response of a human immune
   system to the fungal allergens (or antigens) present in the
   human body. Most common causative fungi include:
   Altarnaria, Cladosporium, Aspergillus, Candida and
   Penicillium. The most common health effects include:
   rhinitis, asthma, allergic dermatitis, allergic sinusitis.

•  Occupational diseases – both allergic and/or infectious in
   origin affecting workers of many industries including:
   crop milling, food processing, farming, composting, and
   waste water treatment. They include respiratory diseases
   known as hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) such as Farmers
   Lung, Mushroom Worker’s Lung, Malt worker’s Lung.
The following are three basic routes of exposure to mould:

•  Inhalation of airborne mould elements including spores and
   cell fragments. These may occur when airborne mould
   elements are present regardless of the mould being viable
   (actively growing) or non-viable (e.g. after disinfection).

•  Inhalation of volatile organic compounds (VOS’s) produced
   by actively growing mould.

•  Direct contact, typically leading to skin infections.

Mould inspection and testing is often necessary to identify “problem areas” in a building. All those areas where excessive mould colonization is identified require mould removal or some level of remediation.

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Health Effects of exposure to Fungi